|About the Book|
The convergence of mobile technologies combined with stricter power requirements and increasing demands have strained the current memory technology. Newer technologies such as phase changing, ferroelectric, and magnetic random access memories areMoreThe convergence of mobile technologies combined with stricter power requirements and increasing demands have strained the current memory technology. Newer technologies such as phase changing, ferroelectric, and magnetic random access memories are unsatisfactory in meeting the new requirements. We propose a new memory technology based on our initial discovery of charge storage in C60 molecules within poly (4-vinyl phenol) (PVP). To understand the memory potential, we created single-layer devices consisting of ∼30nm films of PVP+C60 sandwiched between aluminum (Al) electrodes. Current versus voltage (I-V) sweeps showed a significant hysteresis of 75nA, with distinguishable memory states. Room temperature charging of C60 was confirmed indirectly through capacitance versus voltage measurements and directly by monitoring the A1g characteristic peak of C60 during Raman measurements. We demonstrated memory operations by applying read-write-erase (RWE) pulses. The PVP+C60 devices exhibited memory retention for over 1 hour and response times of around 10ns. Characteristic hysteresis was demonstrated at the nanoscale. Conduction models were fitted at room temperature to the I-V curves. It was found that combination of direct and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling were the principle conduction mechanisms.-For a more technologically viable memory device, we developed a multi-layer device structure, consisting of a polystyrene (PS) capping layer. The resulting asymmetrical I-V curve exhibited a hysteresis ratio of 103 . RWE cycles were measured with clearly distinguishable states. The memory retentions were measured over 2 hours and the response time around 10ns. The stability of the multi-layer devices was improved. I-V measurements at temperatures varying from 4.2 K to 298 K were performed to construct a theoretical model. The I-V curves were found to be temperature independent and exhibited similar tunneling behaviors as the single-layer devices. A simple model for conduction and memory operation is proposed based on the I-V fits.-These devices exhibit the characteristics needed to satisfy the new demands for memory application and have the potential of becoming the first universal memory technology. They possess the high speed, non-volatility, thermal stability, and potentially high memory densities to make them ideal for use in laptops, iPhones, mp3 players, portable video players, GPS systems, and other mobile devices.